Copyright 1985 by Gregory Hodowanec
Reproduction or publication of the content in any manner, without express permission of the publisher, is prohibited.
To my wife, Mary, for her patience during the many hours of seclusion needed to prepare this manuscript, the contents of which she had only the faintest of notions.
Cosmology, in its broadest sense, may be defined as the study of the universe in terms of its origin, its fundamental makeup, and its development in time. Many theories of cosmology have been proposed, and each assumes one or more models by which various phenomena, which are sensed by man or his instruments, are explained. Most of these theories and models are incomplete and thus leave room for alternate theories and explanations. Rhysmonic cosmology is a "new" theory which starts from fundamental premises and therefore builds-up a model of the universe from a firm foundation. It is the aim of this monograph to introduce the reader to these new concepts and to lead the reader in the development of this cosmology in a logical manner.
The theory will not only explain much of what is assumed to be known of this universe, but will also develop new knowledge which will lead to testable predictions and perhaps new and fascinating technologies. The theory also provides logical explanations for many present day enigmas, especially those of an astronomical nature. While the author recognizes that this material is yet incomplete, sufficient information and data will be provided to enable many other independent investigations into this new cosmology. The author hopes that many opt to do so.
Introduction to Cosmology
Early man, as the more rational and inquisitive member of the species inhabiting Earth in his time, has always been interested in his own origins, and also that of the other creatures and objects which surrounded him. While he also respected the power of the sun which provided him with light and warmth during the day, he was especially awed by the night view of the heavens, which were exceptionally brilliant as light pollution was very minimal in his time. Therefore, to satisfy his innate desire to know "why", early man developed explanations for these objectivities and phenomena which were further developed by successive generations as folk lore and eventually became the basis for various established religions. These may be considered the very beginnings of cosmology; therefore, cosmology is as old as man himself.
Cosmology today may be defined in may other ways, but, in general, it may be considered as a branch of astronomy in that is a study of the universe, its origins, structure, and development in time. There are many cosmological theories, but most theories today are based on Einstein's relativity theory. The earlier classical theories of cosmology, which were developed from the times of the ancient Greeks to about the end of the 19th century, were largely based on a mechanistic universe involving a hypothetical substratum which eventually became known as the aether. This transparent and weightless medium was imagined by the latter period classicists to fill all space and to be the medium in which electromagnetic radiation could propagate. Since this medium was believed to have rigid properties, attempts were made to detect its properties. However, failure to detect this medium in the Michelson-Morley experiments (and in many other versions since then) finally led to the abandonment of the aether and also the resulting Newtonian concepts of absolute space and time.
Cosmology, as developed in relativity-based theories of recent years, has generated many new terms and concepts which have aroused the human curiosity. Among the more popular concepts are such items as the redshift in the positions of the spectral lines of distant astronomical objects and thus the inferred expansion of the universe; the "big bang", oscillatory, and steady-state cosmological models; the microwave background or "fossil" radiation; and the various large-scale structures of the universe. In addition, many new and exotic items such as novae and supernovae, black holes, pulsars, quasars, neutron stars, etc., to name but a few, have been discovered in fact or in theory. Present cosmological models and theories offer many as hoc explanations for these observations and thus have many shortcomings, problems, and questions. However, there is one consistent factor emerging from all these theories and that is the belief that there should be a fundamental simplicity behind the observed complexity of the universe. Therefore, it is largely the objective of the present day cosmologists to determine this basic simplicity and thus unite the many forces and particles of nature in a unified whole. Thus the emphasis today on various so-called unified theories of cosmology.
Rhysmonic cosmology proposes to offer a firm base on which to build up a cosmology from fundamental premises which will provide realistic and consistent explanations for all the above phenomena and many others. Since it is a basic cosmology, it will also be shown to be a unified cosmology. In addition, it will be shown to be capable of new predictions of phenomena which are testable in simple direct experiments. This will all flow from the basic premises as presented in the next chapter of this short monograph.
Basics of Rhysmonic Cosmology
In a sense, rhysmonic cosmology restores the substratum aether of the classical era in that an underlying structure is hypothesized, but this structure is somewhat different that was imagined by the classicists. Rhysmons are the "particles" of this substratum and as with the original atoms of Democritus, rhysmons have only "size, shape, position, and velocity". Nothing else is needed to describe them except for the definitions of these attributes. For the purpose of this monograph, rhysmons will be assumed to be extremely small spherical "objects". The reality of the universe is therefore nothing but rhysmons and the void. Rhysmons provide the elementary quantum of action and the rhysmons intertwine or interweave in a matrix structure to form the vacuum which is the very fabric of the universe. It will be shown later that modifications to this structure result in the myriad manifestations or phenomena in nature. From this basis can be constructed the so-called forces or fields of nature, the nature of particles or mass, the nature of charge, and other phenomena, as well as definitions for these entities. These constructions or models can therefore also explain, in simple terms, the more subtle phenomena in nature, such as the nature of inertia, electromagnetic wave propagation, red shift, the constant velocity of light, and the astronomical paradoxes such as quasars, superluminal motions, and galaxy formation, to name just a few of the phenomena.
Matrix Structure ~
The term rhysmon stems from another Greek designation for the early atom. "rhysmos", which meant "onrush" or evermoving since the Greeks considered this entity to never be at rest. Rhysmons also may be considered to be evermoving in contained "orbits" as well. In rhysmonic cosmology, the rhysmons intertwine or interweave with other rhysmons in a close-packed hexagonal structure which is very much reminiscent of the vector equilibrium of R. Buckminster Fuller's energetic-synergetic geometry (Ref. 1). It will be shown that such a structure results in a system of short directed energy vectors which, in free space, i.e., the vacuum, cancel their energies and thus display no effects or phenomena which can be "observable". Thus the basic premise: the pure rhysmoid or the vacuum is not directly observable, but the structure of this vacuum can be constructed from a logical basis as is shown in this cosmology.
Shown in Figure 1 is a planar view of a portion of the vector equilibrium basic cell of the matrix structure in free space, i.e, the vacuum, from which one can define some basic constants in this structure. This basic view directly defines the quantum unit of action for the rhysmon (which is the Planck Constant) and other fundamental units of length, time, and velocity (which are also the Planck Natural units of measurement) (Ref. 2).
These units are designated in the figure but are expressed in words below:
L* = Planck Length = basic quantum "jump" length of rhysmons in free space (vacuum).
T* = Planck Time = basic quantum "jump" time of rhysmons in free space.
C* = Planck Velocity = basic quantum "jump" velocity of rhysmons in free space (equal to velocity of light in free space).
h = Planck Constant = basic quantum of action available in each "orbiting" rhysmon.
h = Reduced Planck Constant = basic quantum unit of action available in a quantum "jump" length of L* (equals h/2P* units of action)
The actual calculated values of the above units and some other derived units are given in Appendix I. To aid the reader in following the development of rhysmonic cosmology, some terms used in describing this cosmology are defined in Appendix II. Additional terms will be defined as needed in the course of the text development.
Shown in Figure 2 is a planar view of a portion of the vector equilibrium basic cell of the matrix structure in which radial vectors are emphasized. In this construction, six radial vectors exist and these vectors cancel the six circumferential vectors of Figure 1 as shown in the more complete construction of Figure 3. It should also be noted that the directions of the rhysmonic rotational "orbits" shown are for illustrative purposes only and may not be correct since the complete matrix involves many vectors as seen in the 3-dimensional view of the system as shown in Figure 4. The structure of Figure 4 contains three intersecting planar structures of the type shown in Figure 3 and these interlock with additional cells as shown for the planar case again in the extended plane of Figure 5. These interlocking structures build up in a 3-dimensional geometry out to the very edge of the universe, but the individual rhysmons are contained within their "orbits" only. The maximum use of available energy content, however, would require that the 3-dimensional buildup of the universe be in spherical form, i.e., the universe must be a perfect sphere. It would be interesting to demonstrate this dynamic, perfect mechanically interlocking model in 3-dimensional computer simulation.
From the construction of Figure 5, one can define some additional rhysmonic (Planck) terms which are expressed in words below:
M* = Planck Mass = mass of single
rhysmon in free space.
V* = Planck Volume = Euclidian cube in free space having Planck Length per side; contains one rhysmon.
D* = Planck Density = mass of rhysmons contined in one unit volume (cm3) of free space.
E* = Planck Energy = energy of one rhysmon in free space.
From the definition established so far, one may also determine the properties of the rhysmons. These flow directly from the basic cell structure which forms the very foundation of this cosmology. The determined properties of the rhysmons as derived from these definitions are also given in Appendix I.
Matrix Geometry ~
The simplified constructions of Figures 1 through 5 are based on Cartesian coordinates and thus Euclidian geometry. Another basic premise in rhysmonic cosmology is that the pure rhysmonic structure, i.e., the vacuum, is Euclidian in geometry throughout the entire universe. This means that Euclidian type "straight" lines exist in this universe. The vectors as depicted in these figures, especially those shown in Figure 5, are seen to form Euclidian type straight lines with directed rhysmonic vectors joining head-to-tail. For any one particular straight line this is an "instantaneous vector" which spans the universe from edge to edge (the universe was shown to be a finite sphere). A particular configuration exists for Planck Time, T*, or about 5.4 x 1-44 seconds, when rhysmonic "orbiting" causes other rhysmons which have reversed orbital orientation to appear in any chosen reference "line", and thus the vectors the vectors also reverse direction. In time, T*, later again, the vectors are restored to the original directions, but the original rhysmon does not return to this original position until a time period of 6T* has passed. Since this directional reversal occurs for each straight line instantaneous vector in the entire universe every 5.4 x 10-44 seconds, the universe is like a movie or cinema, where each single frame or picture in the cinema of existence lasts for only 5.4 x 10-44 seconds. This representation of the structure of the universe has two significant conclusions: (1) Individual rhysmons are limited are limited in movement to an "orbit" having a radius of Planck Length, L*, or about 1.6 x 10-33 centimeters, and (2) rhysmonic effects in each "straight line" are instantaneous vectors which span the universe and reverse in Planck Time, T*, or about 5.4 x 10-44 seconds. Thus it is possible in rhysmonic cosmology to ascertain that two events in different parts of the universe do occur at the same time, within a measurement error of Planck Length, L*, or Planck Time, T*. Thus rhysmonic cosmology restores, in essence, the absolute space and time of Newton. The concepts disclosed in this paragraph are very important for the later discussion of forces and fields as well as particles and charge. It will be shown to be especially significant in the discussion of gravitation.
The simple concepts of the basics of rhysmonic cosmology as given in this chapter are used to establish the whole of rhysmonic cosmology. No other ad hoc or other assumptions are needed in the further development of this cosmology. Thus it could well be the simple cosmology sought by most cosmologists today. This will become clearer as the development of this cosmology continues.
The Rhysmonic Universe
Currently popular cosmological models for the universe generally fall within three broad categories: the Big Bang version, the Oscillatory version, and the Steady-State versions. There are many individual interpretations within each broad category, depending upon the proponent's general viewpoints. However, each general class has some common features as follows: in the Big bang version, the universe is supposed to have begun as a "primeval" atom which contained all the mass of the universe. This "atom" exploded about 15 billion years or so ago, resulting in the apparent expansion seen today. In the Oscillatory version, the universe does not expand forever, but because of self-gravitation, stops, and then collapses to the "primeval" atom state again to repeat the cycle. In Steady-State versions, constant mass and mean density is postulated. Since the "observed" expansion of the universe is also recognized, these theories call for the continuous creation of matter in some manner to maintain the mean density constant.
As noted above, the current theories all postulate expansion of the universe as evidenced by the Hubble relation of velocity-distance for the galaxies. In addition, various geometries are also postulated, for example, Einstein's 4-dimensional space. This all results in the necessity for many ad hoc explanations for these various effects. However, rhysmonic cosmology, since it starts with very basic premises as briefly outlined in the previous chapter, effectively eliminated the need for such ad hoc explanations and thus is a general theory for all effects and phenomena without invoking any additional assumptions.
Rhysmonic Postulates ~
The universe in terms of rhysmonics requires but few postulates, all of which stem directly from the basic premises of the previous chapter. They are listed here and briefly developed in this chapter. The development will be made more complete as rhysmonic cosmology unfolds:
(1) The universe is a finite,
spherical matrix structure which has finite energy content which is a function
of its size.
(2) The universe is Euclidian in geometry.
(3) The edge of the universe is a perfect reflector of radiant energy; therefore the universe is a perfect black body.
(4) Matter particles (mass) form only in the central region of the spherical universe.
Finite Universe ~
The size of the universe depends only on the total number of rhysmons involved and the size of the matrix cell. The present size of the matrix cell is established by Planck's Natural Units as applied to the vector equilibrium structure of the basic cell described previously. Perhaps the size of the universe can eventually be determined from the size of the basic cell structure. While the basic cell structures could be combined to yield almost any shape for the universe, it can be shown that the optimum use of the available energy content would require that the universe be spherical in shape. The present energy of a single rhysmon is determinable from the Planck Constant and his Natural Units. Therefore, the since the rhysmonic universe builds up from very basic fundamental structures, there is no need for expensive atom-smashing experiments to finally arrive at this same basic structure. Instead of working down from complexity to basics, as in present day high-energy physics, rhysmonic cosmology works up from basics to the ore complex structures and phenomena. The complexities of nature are but modifications or perturbations in the pure rhysmoid (vacuum) universe. Rhysmonic cosmology does not preclude the existence of other universes in the void, or the possibility of collisions between universes, nor the possibility that universes might gain or lose rhysmons which may be out there "floating" in the void.
Euclidian Universe ~
A Cartesian coordinate Euclidian type universe has already been postulated. This is directly the result of the close-packed hexagonal structure of the vector equilibrium basic matrix cell. This applies primarily to the pure rhysmoid or low-density matter regions of the universe. Rhysmonics does not preclude that under highly localized conditions other geometries could and probably do exist. However, on a large scale, e.g., astronomical dimensions, use of Euclidian geometry would still be valid, which is contrary to the opinions of many present day cosmologists.
Reflections at Rhysmoid Edge ~
As has been shown in the previous chapter, the close-packed hexagonal structure of the basic matrix cell leads to universe-wide "instantaneous vectors" which reverse in Planck Time, T*. Consider the planar cell structure of Figure 3 to be located at the edge of the universe. Note the directions of the vectors depicted. At Planck Time, T*, later, all these vectors will reverse direction, no matter what was the direction of their arrival, i.e., the vector field is returned or reflected. Since the overall surface of the universe is a sphere, the inside edge of the universe is in essence a concave spherical mirror. As such it has all the properties of any concave spherical mirror in terms of geometric optics based on Euclidian geometry. This concept is significant and crucial to the development of matter (particles, atoms, molecules, galaxies, etc.) in the universe as well as such effects as gravitation, quasars, superluminal motions, and other strange effects or paradoxes found in nature, especially in the large-scale aspects of the universe.
Matter in the Universe ~
Shown in Figure 6 is a planar view of the universe as constructed in rhysmonic cosmology. It has already been postulated in concept that the universe is a perfect sphere with the edge acting as a perfect spherical mirror for rhysmonic vectors. It will be shown later that electromagnetic and gravitational signals are but special manifestations of rhysmonic vectors, thus these signals or effects are also perfectly "reflected" from the edge of the universe. Thus, as has been stated already, the universe is a closed system and a black body.
It is also indicated in Figure 6 that matter (mass) particles form out to only about the half radius point in the rhysmoid universe. This is primarily due to two factors as depicted in Figure 6. First, due to the rhysmoid's hexagonal geometry, ideal 60� reflections from the edge of the universe will be limited to the outer one-half radius, thus helping to maintain this outer region a pure rhysmoid. Second, any perturbations within the center half of the rhysmoid sphere will reflect of the spherical edge of the universe to the focal plane which is also the edge of the center sphere, thus also tending to maintain the outer half-radius as pure rhysmoid. By the same token, perturbations at the focal plane can be reflected off the edge of the universe and could possibly be statistically combined at different points in the matter region, creating additional excesses and deficiencies of rhysmons which will be shown to be the "matter" of the universe. The matter created at the focal plane would diffuse under gravitational effects toward the center of the universe. Gravitational effects would also develop large-scale structure in matter "created" in the central regions of the universe. Some additional matter could perhaps be created in shock action with possible "collisions" between universes. It is believed that the earth is located well off-center in the matter portion of this universe model.
A simple rhysmonic model of the universe has been postulated. This model is the direct result of the rhysmonic premises of the previous chapter. Therefore, the basic foundations of rhysmonic cosmology have already been laid. The further development of this cosmology, including all known phenomena (and many previously unknown phenomena) will not require further assumptions or premises. This is the desired simple universe; complexity will be shown to be the result of the many manifestations and interactions possible in this postulated basic structure.
Mass & Energy
Definitions for mass (matter) and energy (work) have appeared in many forms. For the most part, mass has been defined as that quality in a particle or body which has the property of resisting a change in motion, i.e., it has inertia. Matter, in turn, has been defined as that which occupies space and has weight, i.e., it is affected by the earth’s gravity. In even more simple terms, matter has been defined merely as a collection of atoms, since atoms contain many of the more "fundamental" particles of nature which have the above characteristics. Energy, on the other hand, has been defined as a property that is a measure of the capacity to do work. More precisely, it is the capacity to do work by overcoming resistance, e.g., inertia. Energy may appear in many forms, but always in conjunction with "mass". Thus mass (matter) and energy (work) are very closely related as has been shown in the relation: E = mc2 .
The generalities mentioned above may be more simply expressed in terms of simple mathematics provided the terms that are used are also simply defined. Since we are dealing with matter and motion, these will be general terms from mechanics:
Force ~ An action capable
of changing the state of rest or motion in matter.
Velocity ~ The rate of motion measured as length moved per unit term.
Acceleration ~ Rate of change in velocity per unit time.
Momentum ~ An inertial force measured as a function of mass and velocity.
Work ~ Energy expended in the motion of matter against a resisting force, e.g., inertia.
Action ~ Work (energy) expended in a given time; also expressible as momentum expended in a given distance.
Classical Mechanics ~
Classical mechanics also expresses rhysmonic mechanics and thus some of these classical relations are developed here. Development will be in the CGS system of units:
Force ~ A quantity of force applied to a mass or particle is measured by the amount of accleerationm induced as a function of the mass of the particle.
F = ma = gm x cm/sec2 = dynes
Work ~ The amount of work is a function of the resisting force (inertia) and the distance moved against this force.
W = Fd = gm x cm/sec2 x cm = dyne-cm = ergs
Action ~ The amount of action is a function of inertial force (momentum) and the distance over which this force is applied.
A = pd = mvd =gm x cm/sec x cm = gm-cm2/sec
Energy ~ The time rate of action expended
E = A/t = gm-cm2/sec x 1/sec = W = ergs
The mechanical concepts considered in the previous paragraphs are applicable to the so-called "particles" of physics at both the macroscopic and microscopic levels. It will be shown that these concepts have their basis from the nature of the substratum, i.e., the vacuum or the matrix cell structure. As was described in the previous development of rhysmonic basics, the universe consists of only rhysmons and the void. Therefore, rhysmonic mechanics must stem from the rhysmons in this matrix structure. While some innate properties can be derived from the basic matrix structure, the development of most mechanical concepts require a "perturbation" or disturbance in the normal free space configuration of the matrix cell in order to manifest itself in the macroscopic or microscopic levels as an effect which is "observable". A prime concept involved is that of inertia which has already been mentioned. Inertia must now be considered in more detail.
Inertia has been loosely defined in most mechanics as an observed resisting force to a change in matter’s initial state of rest or motion, but once changed, the inertial force tends to keep the altered motion uniform in a straight line. This behavior is simply explained at the rhysmonic level of the basic cell structure in free space. In Figure (5) a planar view of rhysmonic structure in a repeating hexagonal construction over an extended plane was shown. As depicted there, at any "instant" of Planck Time, rhysmonic vectors are all oriented in a particular "direction" in space, but then the vector directions are reversed in the next instant of Planck Time. Since all vectors are in equilibrium in an undisturbed vacuum, no effect is observable. However, if available energy is used in some manner to enable a rhysmon to gain some additional finite energy, say in the direction AB shown in Figure (5), the directed vector will be changed by this incremental amount of energy in the direction of the "instantaneous" or straight line vector which contained the affected vector. Since the vacuum is a perfect "machine", balance of forces in this matrix system will require an apparent movement of this "disturbance" along this line at the rate of the initial energy increase, forever, unless perturbated or disturbed again. By the same token, to stop this progression would require the equivalent amount o energy to be expended in the reverse direction in order to restore the previous status quo. This simple depiction of inertia, involving but a single rhysmon, is an oversimplification, but it does illustrate the basic mechanism involved and also forms the basis for space and time "dilation" as postulated in relativity theories. It is apparent, even from this simple picture, that rhysmons cannot receive more energy than that of the "jump" enrgy, i.e., that involved in a single rhysmonic directed vector (the reduced Planck Constant Energy), or dilation effects would result in a solid mass of rhysmons whose energies could no longer be overcome. With the multitudes of rhysmons involved with mass or particles, some with possible charge, other effects such as electromagnetic fields and other field effects would make the situation much more complex, but it would not change the basic conception of inertia as given here. Inertia exists because the vacuum exists.
Rhysmonic Mechanics ~
As was shown in the simplified planar view of the matrix cell structure depicted in Figure (1), the total rhysmonic quantum of action may be considered to reside in one complete rhysmonic orbit. Therefore, from Planck’s Constant, we have
A = h ~ 6.624 x 10-27 gm x cm2/sec2 x sec or (erg-sec).
From Euclidian geometry, we find the action of a single directed rhysmonic vector to be:
A* = h/2P* =
h ~ 6.624 x 10-27 / 6.2832 ~ 1.054 x 10-27 erg-sec.
Therefore, the energy available in a rhysmoid directed vector in free space is:
E* = A*/T* ~ 1.054 x 10-27 / 5.391 x 10-44~ 1.96 x 1016 ergs.
The energy available in a rhysmonic directed vector is also determinable from the Einstein relation:
E* = M* x C*2 ~ 2.177 x 10-5 gm x (2.977 x 1010 cm/sec)2 ~ 1.96 x 1016 ergs.
The momentum available in a rhysmonic directed vector is also determinable from Planck (rhysmonic) units:
P* = M* x C* ~ 2.177 x 10-5 gm x 2.977 x 1010 cm/sec ~ 6.524 x 105 gm cm/sec.
The force of a rhysmonic directed vector may be determined as:
F* = E*/L* ~ 1.96 x 1016 / 1.616 x 10-33 ~ 1.21 x 1049 dynes.
The physical nature of the rhysmonic universe has been determined from the basic cell of the matrix structure and the Planck Constant and Natural units. From these parameters, an estimate of the size and mass of the visible universe as well as its energy content is given in Appendix I.
Particles, Fields & Charge
The concept of particles has existed from the earliest of times since it is a natural conclusion derived by man from general observations of his surroundings, e.g., the presence of sand and dust. Using logical considerations, this was extended down to the concept of atoms by the early Greek philosophers. However, the concepts of fields and charge were more recent considerations by man, receiving serious contemplations mainly during the 19th century years. This work by a great number of theorists and experimenters in this "classical" period had resulted in a physics and cosmology which was so complete to some workers as to suggest that little more could be learned. However, the advance of science led to a "modern" physics with newer concepts and ideas such as nuclear physics and the theory of relativity, and classical physics was relegated to the "back burner", so to speak. It will be shown, however, that while classical physics and cosmology were incomplete, the foundations for a true and realistic cosmology were still there. Rhysmonic cosmology proposes to rebuild this foundation and thus reestablish an updated classical-type physics as the more correct approach to our knowledge of the universe.
Rhysmonic Concepts ~
Particles may be defined in many ways, but in general, they may be considered an entity in the vacuum which is "observable" by man or his instruments. Additional requirements are that this entity have locality, or position, and also the attribute called inertia. Developments in rhysmonic cosmology thus far have shown that these considerations require perturbations in the structure of the pure rhysmoid or vacuum. In essence, particles in rhysmonic cosmology must be the result of changes in the "density" of this rhysmonic structure, since the universe is nothing more than rhysmons and the void. This may be achieved essentially by a "tightening" or "loosening" of the hexagonal matrix structure, most likely as a spherical perturbation. This is depicted in the planar views of Figure 7, where simple illustrations can explain many o the properties of particles such s proton, neutron, and electron as well as their anti-particles.
A tightened matrix structure is depicted by the cross-hatched circles in these illustrations and the loosened matrix structure by the open circles. The tightened structure has many more rhysmons than the normal background (vacuum), while the loosened structure has much fewer. The extra rhysmons which make up the tightened structure must, of necessity, have come from the loosened structure. Thus particles, in essence, are created in pairs, one high density and an equivalent low density one. Since rhysmons have energy, work is required to be expended to restructure the vacuum and thus create these particles. An excess of rhysmons, as in the shaded circles, becomes a source of excess directed rysmonic vectors which influence the vacuum structure as a stress field, or as is observed in classical physics, an electric field. The excess region is said to contain positive charge since it is a source of excess out-directed rhysmonic vectors. The open circle areas, which have a deficiency of rhysmons compared to the vacuum background, also causes a stress field. The deficient region is said to contain negative charge as it is a sink for in-directed rhysmonic vectors. Figure (7a) also shows in a simple way the nature of the "attractive force" between particles of opposite charge. As depicted here, the excess rhysmonic vectors between the two particles are in the same direction and thus the balance of forces required by the vacuum causes these two entities to progress or move toward each other, in an apparent attractive force. The method of progression will be considered in electromagnetics in conjunction with a depiction of magnetic fields. Shown in Figure (7b) is a simple illustration of the "repulsive force" between two like charges, say two protons. The excess rhysmonic directed vectors between these particles are in opposition and thus the balance of forces of the vacuum will require the particles to progress or move away from each other, in an apparent repulsive force. To cause these particles to approach each other will require additional work to overcome the energy of these opposing vectors. Thus, in essence, the nature of charge is pretty much as was imagined by the classicists.
Shown in Figure (7c) is the possible configurations in rhysmonics for the neutron and anti-neutron and other possible neutral particles. The neutron may be considered to be basically a proton but to contain a reduced density center region roughly equivalent to the electron in structure. Therefore, excess directed vectors cancel within this configuration, and since no external excess-directed vectors are "seen", no charge effects are apparent. The anti-neutron has the inverse structure of the neutron and also shows no charge due to a similar cancellation of excess directed vectors. Other more complex structure may be built-up from these basic concepts as well as some other concepts, to create the myriad particles of physics. For example, nuclear structure, e.g., the liquid drop model, could be considered to have the above neutron-type structure in which the positive excess directed vectors are not completely cancelled. The remaining out-directed vectors terminate on surrounding electrons and thus serve to "attract" and hold these electrons in various atomic structures.
Particle Creation ~
The universe is assumed to have been a pure rhysmoid, i.e., a pure vacuum, in the beginning. It was built up into the spherical matrix structure of today with the continual collection of rhysmons from the void. With this conjecture as a starting point, a simple scenario for particle (or matter) creation is now presented.
Consider the early universe without the presence of any matter. The energy content is that which was brought into this spherical system by the "incoming" rhysmons. These rhysmons "locked" their energies into the "equalized" matrix structure which forms this universe. The only initial energy "force", to use this term loosely, was the "instantaneous" vector field, which was also the equalizing mechanism in the rhysmoid. This process resulted in the "perfect mechanical" universe mentioned previously.
The only possible form of radiant energy in this early universe other than the instantaneous vectors would be the "disturbances" introduced into this rhysmoid by the impacts of unusually energetic incoming rhysmoids, possible collision with another universe (which will result in essentially a big-bang type of energy increase), or just the normal fluctuations which could be attributed to such a system. In any event, the only "observable" phenomena in this early universe would be electromagnetic fields and possibly some gravitational effects. Therefore, any particle creation must have stemmed from this radiant energy.
A mechanism for particle production from radiant energy is still observable today in the so-called pair production and annihilation phenomena. This mechanism in rhysmonics is slightly modified but would still largely apply to electron-positron production because of energy considerations. This mechanism is depicted in Figure (8a). It is postulated here that if two electromagnetic impulses (photons of the proper energy and phase) meet from opposite directions at a point in space, this energy, in principle, could restructure the vacuum into two entities, where one now has an increased rhysmonic density and the other has an equivalent reduced density, i.e., a positron and an electron are created. These two entities would then move off in opposite directions (orthogonal to the photons) with an energy (kinetic) as left over in this process. It should be remembered that this process is a function of two photons and thus does not require the presence of another mass for momentum reasons.
While the above could account for positron-electron production, the universe is known to be largely composed of protons and electrons. Some positrons (under certain conditions) could possibly combine to form protons. However, rhysmonics offers other mechanisms for proton creation. One would be similar to that given for positron-electron production, where the interacting photons would have sufficient energy to produce proton-antiproton particles. If annihilation does not take place, then the proton (which is quite stable) would continue to exist, while the antiproton may perhaps decay eventually into electrons. Anther more energy efficient mechanism may be that depicted in Figure (8b). Instead of forming a proton-antiproton pair, a rhysmonic neutron is formed as indicated here. The neutron, being somewhat unstable, also eventually decays to a stable proton and a stable electron. Therefore, the early universe may have been largely protons, electrons, and the "captured" form of the pair, the hydrogen atom. Moreover, since protons contain much more of the "frozen or locked" rhysmons than electrons, there should be more free or trapped electrons in the universe. While hydrogen atoms are very much in abundance in the universe,, the buildup of of atomic structures of greater complexity was, of necessity, required to further balance the charge nature of the universe which developed under these conditions. Therefore, the excess electrons, or some form of negative charge, either as free or captured entities, must be accounted for. The nature and mechanisms for these processes should make an interesting branch in the study of rhysmonic cosmology.
The simple depictions of particles, fields, and charge given here should lead to a further analysis of the complexity of nature. The illustrations are incomplete, but they should provide a starting point for development of these concepts in to structures which can represent reality as perceived by man and his various instruments. The simple depictions of Figure (7) and Figure (8) can lead to many deductions which are observed in physics today. Just a few of them will be listed here:
(1) Particles are essentially excess concentrations of rhysmons or deficient concentrations of rhysmons compared to the normal concentration of rhysmons in the rhysmoid or vacuum.
(2) Particle production, of necessity, must occur in pairs and requires energy proportional to the number of rhysmons involved in this process.
(3) Particles may be considered to have tied up or "frozen" energy in stabilized geometries of vector equilibrium form.
(4) The energy required to form particles initially from the vacuum must be of the radiant form, generally electric, magnetic, electromagnetic or gravitational fields.
(5) Particle and anti-particle recombination must, of necessity, release this "frozen" energy back to the vacuum in radiative form.
(6) Charge is a function of the excess directed vectors arising from the perturbations of certain particles. Charges of equal value have equal excess vectors. Positive charge has out-directed vectors while negative charge has in-directed excess vectors.
(7) Stable configurations of rhysmons having the same charge but different concentration of rhysmons are possible, for example the proton and the positron, as well as the anti-proton and the electron. The proton and electron are believed to be more stable configurations that their anti-particle configurations.
There has been no consideration of the magnetic, electromagnetic, and gravitational fields as these dynamic concepts will be treated in separate chapters.
Many aspects of electric and magnetic fields had been fairly well established by the classical physicists of the 19th century. Electromagnetic radiation "effects" were probably noticed by the 19th century physicists and experimenters, notably Michael Faraday, but do not appear to have pursued further. Therefore, it wasn’t until about the end of that century before electromagnetic radiation, theoretically predicted by James Clerk Maxwell, was finally conclusively generated and detected in the experiments of Heinrich Rudolph Hertz. Not much was done with these signals, however, until [Nikola Tesla and] Gugliemo Marconi demonstrated in 1901 that long-range communication using these signals was feasible. At this time the inquisitive and knowledgeable experimenter became involved and amateur radio as a hobby and avocation was born. These dedicated experimenters probably did more for the development of radio than any other group until the accelerated development programs of World War II.
The work of "modern" physicists has elucidated on these developments, but has added very little to the basics or in fundamentally new concepts. Much effort has been expended to mathematically define particles and fields from their observed effects only, since relativity physicists have effectively "squelched" any real attempts to model electromagnetics on a material or mechanical basis. Since rhysmonic cosmology starts with a simple basic matrix structure for the substratum, or vacuum, a material and "perfect mechanical" universe is once more feasible. Some concepts, which have already been applied to particles and electric fields, will now be considered with respect to magnetic fields, and of necessity, to the concept of the electromagnetic field.
Rhysmonic Magnetics ~
In the discussion on mass and energy, the concept of inertia at the rhysmonics level was considered on the basis of a single rhysmon. When this is extended to the multitude of rhysmons of a particle (but without charge), it can be shown that the process of inertia now also involves a concept called "spin" for the movement of a mass or particle within the "sea of rhysmons" formed by the mass structure of the vacuum. In essence, the particle must perform sort of a "cork screw" motion where the circumferential vectors now "rotate" at the velocity of light, but the translational of inertial velocity of the system proceeds at the macroscoic speed of the added energy increment given this system. To a large measure, these concepts are in agreement with those which were established by the classical physicists many years ago. However, in the case of a particle which has charge, say an electron, in addition to this property called spin, there is a new action called the magnetic moment, due to the excess directed rhysmonic vectors associated with the charged particle. Thus, it has long been recognized that a moving charge will generate a new effect known as the magnetic fields, e.g., a flow of electrons in a wire will create a stress condition in the vacuum around this wire which has the properties known as a magnetic field in classical physics
Rhysmonics, therefore, shows that the magnetic field is due to the interaction of the excess directed rhysmonic vectors of a rotating charge region, as depicted for the electron in Figure (9). Here the electron is depicted to be "spinning" counterclockwise as it moves up and out of the paper. The excess directed vectors can affect the circumferentials shown, adding their energies to these vectors, and causing the magnetic moment to be created. Therefore, the magnetic field is a closed loop of excessively rotating rhysmonic vectors, giving reality to the flux lines as imagined by Faraday and the classicists, as well as that seen in the well-known image formed by iron filings surrounding a current-carrying wire. Since the rhysmons are directed vectors, the flux line "flow" is also as that which was imagined by the classicist, i.e., that given by the right-hand rule. From Figure (9), it can be shown (from Euclidian geometry) that the strength of the circumferential vectors, i.e., the magnetic field, will fall off inversely with the square of the radius. Thus rhysmonics provides a logical explanation for the fall off of these field strengths which have been determined from experiment.
Electromagnetic Fields ~
The translation of charge has been sown to cause an interaction with the surrounding circumferential rhysmonic vectors. Since the vacuum is a "perfect machine", balance of forces will require an apparent rotational movement of these vectors, and the rotational energy (or curl) will be sustained as long as the lateral movement of charge is sustained. This simple picture indicates that a moving charge, i.e., a dynamic electric field, must, of necessity, also bring into existence at the same time, a dynamic magnetic field. By the same token, a changing or dynamic magnetic field will bring into existence a movement of rhysmons which leads to a charge and thus a resultant electric field. As a consequence, energy may be stored alternately in these two aspects of rhysmonic fields. A sustained movement of charge will result in a sustained magnetic field, i.e., the magnetic field will be in a sustained stress in the vacuum and thus a storehouse of energy. Sudden release of this stress would result in a rapid movement of radial rhysmons and thus an intense electric field. Energy can also be stored in this electric field. The rapid interchange of stressed rhysmonic energy between the magnetic mode and the electric mode of storage is known as an oscillatory discharge in electronics. Therefore, under dynamic conditions, we cannot speak of just an electric field or just a magnetic field, but only of an interacting electromagnetic field.
Wave Propagation ~
A dynamic electromagnetic field has an additional interesting property in that the interacting fields result in a propagation effect in free space (the vacuum) which is known as an electromagnetic wave or EM radiation. A seldom-used illustration of this process is shown in Figure (10a). This is the "link chain" interpretation of EM wave propagation. Here the fields are depicted as closed loop vectors for not only the magnetic component, but also the electric component. The H-field loops are shown lying in the plane of the paper, while the E-field loops are shown directed into the paper at (-), thus completing the loop. The direction of propagation is seen to be at right angles to both these components. This closed loop interpretation of EM wave propagation indicates a quarter wavelength or 90� phase shift between the electric and magnetic components, which is not depicted in most EM wave illustrations. This appears to be a necessary requirement of the directed vector construction of the vacuum of the universe. The loops are shown as circular in this depiction of the universe. The loops are shown as circular in this depiction for illustrative purposes only. It should be noted that the depiction is symmetrical, i.e., the E-components can be interchanged with the H-components, and vice versa, without affecting the nature of this propagation. This symmetry is also apparent in the form of Maxwells’ equations for EM waves.
When viewed under the substratum conditions of the rhysmonic matrix structure, this propagation process has some interesting consequences. As was seen in the planar view of circumferential vectors in the basic matrix structure of Figure (10)b, the closest approach of any two adjacent parallel directed rhysmonic vectors is approximately two times the Planck Length, or 2L*, which is equal to about 3.2 x 10-33 centimeters. Since the magnetic component in electromagnetic propagation is at right angles to the direction of propagation, and since curl or a rotational vector geometry is also involved, magnetic field reversal as seen in the depiction of Figure (10a) cannot take place closer than this closest approach of parallel directed rhysmonic vectors, or 2L*. This concept is clarified in the simplified sketch of Figure (10b). Here the magnetic closed loop vectors (which are really circumferential vectors) are shown, but the closed loop electric field vectors (which are really radial vectors) are shown only by (+) where they enter the paper and (-) where they return out of the paper. Again, the magnetic rotational vectors cannot approach closer than the basic cell structure shown here. It should be noted that this basic cell could, in a broad sense, be considered as the "idler wheel" imagined by Maxwell in his mechanical model of EM fields. Therefore, for each magnetic field reversal, i.e., for each half wavelength of EM propagation, the wavelength must increase by this increment, 2L*, or by 4L* per full wavelength. Since this increment is independent of wavelength, it is a linear factor and is also the observed "Hubble Factor", but it should be remembered that E- and H-components may also be interchanged in this depiction. However, from symmetry, it is seen that the electric field component reversal also requires an increment of 4L* per wavelength. However, since both components are increased equally, the overall wave has a uniform expansion with wavelength of this same fixed amount of 4L*. Thus the longer EM waves travel in space, the more the wavelength increases. This process accounts for the so-called redshift in the spectra of distant galaxies.
Verification of L* from Astronomy ~
The incremental factor of 4L* can also be determined from astronomical data, confirming in part this explanation for the redshifts in distant optical spectra. The relation of the rhysmonic model to astronomical data can be made as follows: The best overall estimate of the radius o the visible universe, Ro, from various determinations, is about
Ro ~ 1.2 x 1010 L.Y., or: 1.14 x 1028 cm.
Redshift of EM wavelengths from the far gamma ray regions ( ~ 7.5 x 10-5 cm) would be an incremental change (delta lambda) in wavelength in the order of this 7.5 x 10-5 cm. Therefore, the number of incremental steps needed for light in the universe to go "dark" in Ro , the radius of the visible universe, is:
1.14 x 1028 cm ( Ro ) ~1.52 x 1032 increments
7.5 x 10-5 cm (Dl)
From this, we have a new "Hubble Factor" of:
H* ~ (1.52 x 1032 ) -1 , or: 6.58 x 10-33
Per wavelength of light travel time. Compare this to the present Hubble factor of:
Ho~ (1.7 x 1028 ) -1 , or: 5.9 x 10-29
Per centimeter of light travel time.
As was shown in Figure (1), 2L* was about 3.23 x 10-33 cm, and thus L* is about 1.61 x 10-33 centimeters. From the above astronomical determination, 4L* is about 6.58 x 10-33 cm and thus L* is about 1.64 x 10-33 centimeters, in close agreement with the Planck and rhysmonic values.
Velocity of Propagation ~
The vector depictions of Figure (10) are for EM wave propagation in the pure rhysmoid, i..e., the vacuum. Since the universe is like a cinema, with each frame in the cinema of existence lasting for Planck Time, T*, a rhysmonic field reversal, e.g., the magnetic reversal, must occur only after a new frame has begun, i.e., after this time interval of T* has passed. But also in this time interval a rhysmonic vector has moved or "jumped" a distance of Planck Length, L*. Therefore, the translation of these rhysmonic "effects" is Planck Length, L*, in Planck Time, T*, which gives a Planck Velocity, C*, or as is calculated out, C, the known velocity of light (or EM waves) in the vacuum! Since repeated rhysmonic field reversals occur during electric and magnetic field generations, as well as in this propagation process, the velocity of propagation must be this constant L*/T*, and is thus independent of wavelength (frequency) or other factors such as initial velocity or energy. The only way the velocity of propagation could change is if L* or T* change. This is possible in matter where the matrix structure is tightened or loosened, or under conditions where space and time are "dilated" as per relativity theory.
Rhysmonic cosmology restores a mechanical basis to the phenomena of electromagnetics and predicts that redshifts are but a function of the EM wave propagation process and not due to the so-called expansion of the universe. The universe is not expanding.
The force of gravity was probably the earliest "force" to be recognized by man. early man realized that objects has weight and when a supported object ws released he noticed that it would always fall to theground. This force was very mysterious to him and has remained more or less mysterious to this very day. While gravitation was the first of the fundamental laws of physics to be discovered, it was also found to be the weakest of the three major forces noted thus far in our universe. The other two forces, the electromagnetic and nuclear forces, are many, many orders of magnitude stronger. However, the gravitational force, in a sense, may be considered more fundamental since it requires only the presence of mass in order to exist, while the other forces also require the presence of charge to exist.
While gravitation was recognized as a force very early, the development of a quantitative expression for this force was a long time in coming. It was finally summed up in the laws of universal gravitation by Isaac Newton early in the 18th century. During the 18th and 19th centuries, Newtonian gravitation was further developed and applied to many problems in physics and astronomy. It remained unchallenged until the advent of the theory of relativity by Albert Einstein early in the 20th century. At this time a geometric interpretation for the "force" of gravity was proposed.
Newtonian Gravity ~
While Newton never arrived at a mechanism for gravitation, he was a staunch believer in the aether theory and had a strong conviction that the mechanism somehow lay in the aether. A hypothesis was proposed somewhat later by G.L. LeSage, a French Swiss, that "ultra-mundane corpuscles" in the aether were responsible for the effect of gravitation. While Newton did not express it directly so, both he and LeSage really proposed a "Mechanical Particle" view of gravitation. However, these concepts were not pursued seriously then, since the success of the mathematical interpretation of gravitation appeared to outweigh any need for a mechanical explanation of gravitational effects.
Newton’s law of universal gravitation suggests that every bit of matter, i.e., mass, in the universe "attracts" every other bit of matter in the universe, with a "force" which was proportional to their mass and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. In the CGS system of units, this statement can be expressed as an equation, by introducing a proportionality constant, G. Therefore, the law is generally presented as:
F = Gm1m2 /D2
Where G is approximately equal to 6.672 x 10-8 dyne-cm2/gm2. This would mean that if m1 and m2 were two spherical masses of 1 gm each, and were placed exactly 1 cm apart (between centers), the so-called force of attraction between them would be the factor of 6.672 x 10-8 dynes seen in the value of G.
This relation and the three Newton laws of motion form the basis of Newtonian mechanics. In addition, such concepts as work and energy can be developed on these premises. Another concept arising in Newtonian gravitation is that of "action at a distance", which implies an "instantaneous" action. Newton had no explanation for this other than that the effect existed. Since Newtonian gravitation is essentially a mechanical theory (as is relativity), it provides largely a macroscopic view, integrating many microscopic effects and possibly some substratum effects, in its overview. Therefore, both are somewhat incomplete, and thus may lead to some erroneous conclusions under certain conditions. However, the author’s "new" theory of cosmology has very basic premises which provide for a firm foundation on which can be constructed a universe in which both classical gravitation and relativistic gravitation can be shown to be but broad overviews of rhysmonic theory. Rhysmonic cosmology will demonstrate that all known (and many unknown) gravitational effects can be derived from the basic matrix structure of the rhysmoid as developed in the basic premises of this theory.
Rhysmonic Gravitation ~
It had been shown (in terms of rhysmonics) that the universe is a finite, spherical, and perfect black body in that all forms of radiant energy are reflected from the edge of the universe. This is a direct result of the matrix structure of the vacuum and the rhysmonic energy vector concept. For example, the "instantaneous" energy vectors as depicted in Figure (5), are returned or reflected at the universe edge by the same process of vector reversal as was discussed in Chapter 2. These instantaneous vectors are fundamental to a discussion of rhysmonic gravitation effects.
The determination of the laws of gravitation and the mechanism for gravitation in terms of rhysmonics is depicted in Figure (11). Consider a lone mass, A, located at the exact center of a pure rhysmoid universe, i.e., an undisturbed vacuum universe, as is shown in Figure (11). No other masses are assumed to be present in this universe. From Euclidian geometrical symmetry it is seen that the instantaneous rhysmonic vector impulses on this test particle are exactly equal for all possible angles of arrival. Therefore, since all impulses are equal, the particle remains at "rest" and no net force is present. Now consider the lone test particle to be located off-center in the rhysmoid universe at position B. Again, it can be shown by Euclidian geometry that all instantaneous rhysmonic impulses arriving at this test particle would also be equal, and thus again no net force would be present. In a similar manner, it can be shown that a lone mass, located anywhere in the rhysmoid universe will have no net force on it and thus will be at rest. Therefore, there will be no external gravitational effect in the universe if it contains only one mass, even though the region of this mass is a perturbed section of the rhysmoid or vacuum. Of course, the particle itself will be partially held together by the internal gravitational effects between the individual rhysmons which go to make up this particular particle.
However, now consider the case where two masses, A and B, are present in the universe. Again, the instantaneous vectors will be generally equalized, except for the impulses which are in a direct line with the two test particles. Here, due to the "screening" action of the masses, there will be more impulses on the sides away from each other than on the sides facing each other. The two masses will thus be "impelled" towards each other, which, from the outside would appear to be a force of "attraction". This is due to the fact that a massive particle implies a tightened matrix structure which delays the transmission of rhysmonic impulses through such a structure. It can be shown that this force would be proportional to the number of rhysmons in these particles i.e., the masses, and inversely proportional to the distance between the masses. The proportionality constant, G, is both a function of the size of the universe, and the amount and location of other masses in the universe. In general, the constant, G, remains very much a constant, except when other masses are located relatively close and in line with the test masses. Since gravitational effects are a function of Euclidian geometry, and the rhysmonic universe is Euclidian in geometry, e.g., Euclidian "straight lines" do exist in the universe, shielding effects must be considered in any determination of the gravitational constant, G. In most determinations of G, neglect of this factor has resulted in errors in the determination of the value of G.
Two interesting observations can now be made. First, gravitation is basic to the matrix construction of the vacuum and thus is very fundamental as it does not depend on any other effect other than the "screening" action of masses in the universe. Thus, gravitation is really an "impelling" force rather than an "attractive" force between the masses. If the vacuum did not exist, neither would the phenomenon of gravitation, even if matter "existed" in a void. Second, since these gravitational effects take place in Planck time, T*, with instantaneous rhysmonic vectors existing in this time period, "action at a distance" is in effect restored in this universe. Electromagnetic effects, which proceed at the speed of light, C, do not play a part in this action. However, since gravitational fields are rhysmonic flux fields, the same as electric fields are also rhysmonic flux fields, both can transfer energy between distant objects in the process called induction, which really involves monopole "waves" between them. It must be remembered, however, that in the case of the electric field, the rhysmonic flux is due to the presence of charge in the universe, while with gravitation, the rhysmonic flux is due to the presence of shielding masses and charge is not a requirement. A commonly observed flux due to this shielding action is the earth’s gravity.
Gravity on Earth ~
The gravitation due to the earth’s mass appears in the common concept of weight. The shielding action of the earth’s mass results in a net flux of rhysmonic impulses at the earth’s surface which becomes the accelerating force of gravity or the accelerating force of free fall, g. Newton’s law may be applied to this special case of gravitation using the best estimate of the earth’s radius and mass. The constant of proportionality is now g. the relation for the weight, W, is given by:
W = mg ,
Where m is the mass of the test particle. The expression for W assumes that g is a constant, which normally it is. However, rhysmonic cosmology has shown that "fluctuations" in this constant could exist due to certain cosmological effects. Therefore, the apparent weight, W, would also fluctuate, sometimes quite appreciably, in the order of several per cent! Shown in Figure (11) are simplified depictions of two cosmological factors which are found to affect the value of g on earth. The shielding action of the mass of the earth results in a fairly uniform g-field flux at the surface of the earth (assuming locations selected for constant flux values). This is indicated by the uniform length vectors directed toward the center of the earth. Consider now a supernova explosion located far off in space at location, A. The oscillatory "implosion" of the mass of the core of this nova will "modulate" the instantaneous rhysmonic vectors and this will appear as a modulation superimposed on the g-field flux appearing to an observer located at location a on earth. In a similar manner, a dense object, such as the core of a galaxy or a black hole, located in deep space at position B, will reduce the g-field flux level to an observer located on earth at position b. The mechanisms and experimental data for these observations will be given in separate articles as listed in Appendix III and thus will no be considered here.
Gravitational Waves ~
Quadrature-type gravitational-waves which propagate at the speed of light were predicted by Einstein many years ago. While rhysmonics does not deny such waves, the low levels and extremely long wavelengths of such waves makes their detection very difficult. Unequivocal detection of such waves has not been made to date (perhaps some micropulsations may be such waves). However, monopole-type induction field gravitational "waves", generated by oscillatory mass movements such as would appear in a supernova have been unequivocally detected electronically (3) with the very basic circuit shown in Figure (12). This circuit operates essentially in that these oscillatory gravitational impulse signals appear equivalent to the action of an alternating electric field with respect to the loosely bound electrons in the detecting capacitor. The current impulses generated in this capacitor are highly amplified to a voltage pulse which is then displayed on a recording meter and/or oscilloscope as well as listened to on audio equipment. This circuit will actually display the gaussian amplitude variations of nova and supernova "bursts" as well as other gravitational disturbances in the universe. This circuit is further discussed in reference articles in Appendix III and will not be further considered here. Therefore, under certain conditions, the monopole gravitational "waves", or more correctly, rhysmonic impulse flux variations, cannot be differentiated from electric field flux variations since they are essentially the same entities. The detector is also useful in detecting massive bodies in the universe as a "shadow" affecting the average background levels of the general gravitational radiation. This technique has been used to detect galaxy structure, black holes, and more important, supernova development in real time! These concepts and experiments are also further discussed in the references of Appendix III.
Microwave Background Radiation ~
The so-called microwave background radiation (MBR) has been attributed to being a relic radiation left over from the original "explosion" in the Big-bang version of the origin of the universe. However, it can be shown by rhysmonics to actually be due to a summation of all the above gravitational "waves" present in the universe. This radiation was discovered serendipitiously in 1965 by Penzias and Wilson (Ref. 4) in the course of making radio-astronomical measurements using a microwave horn antenna at about a 7 cm wavelength. During the course of these tests, a residual radiation which was isotropic in nature, remained unaccounted for. That this radiation is of a black body nature and highly isotropic has been determined in many tests since that time. Today the radiation has been shown to pretty much follow the curve for a black body at a temperature of about 2.7� K. However, some questions still remain concerning the isotropy of this radiation.
The simple detection circuit of Figure (12), when operated with stabilizing capacitor, Cx , in the circuit, will respond to overall noises generated by these gravitational impulse processes. This is depicted in the curve of Figure (13). Audio amplification of the output of the detector will evidence the many sounds of space, both noisy and somewhat musical sounds. An interesting experiment can be performed under these audio conditions. The output of the detector can be modulated in amplitude by a local movement of mass near the detector. This is depicted as Experiment I in the simplified sketch of Figure (14). Here, the output level of the noise can be peaked or nulled with a mass movement of about 0.25 cm between the peaks or nulls, for an apparent "space" wavelength of this 0.25 cm. It is as if the gravitational noise in space has a natural intense wavelength of 0.25 cm, and local perturbations cause these signals to interfere, typical of standing waves in wave theories. This effect is found to be present at all laboratory distances, up to the maximum of 75 feet available. The effect is not due to electromagnetic effects since when the circuit, amplifier and power supplies are shielded electrically thoroughly, the modulation still comes through unabated. In fact, the detector is found to be also modulated by the beating heart! It is also significant that the measured wavelength of 0.25 cm is also the peak wavelength of the so-called black body microwave radiation! However, as is shown here, this noise is a gravitational effect and a summation or integration of all rhysmonic impulses generated in the universe, and thus averaged out as a general noise background level. While this noise level, or if you wish, this microwave background level (what Penzias and Wilson measured was the microwave energy generated by the thermal heating of their horn antenna by these gravitational impulse signals) is quite isotropic, since it exists in a black body universe, measurable anisotropies will also exist due to our off-center location in this spherical universe, and the random nature of the supernova "bursts" as well as random concentrations of mass, i.e., galaxies, in the central portion of the universe. As a final note, while the gravitational flux field is equivalent to the electric flux field under certain conditions, it is not an electric flux field since it is not sources or sunk by an electric charge. Therefore, the so-called microwave background radiation is really a gravitational effect as discussed here.
Figure 14: Local "modulations" of the gravitational signal background levels. Experiment I: Demonstrates the existence of a 0.25 cm long "standing wave" in the overall gravitational signals which are summed up or integrated in our black body universe. Experiment II: Demonstrates the initiation of a universe-wide gravitational disturbance by a mass movement at the local level
Modulation of the Rhysmoid ~
Consider now another effect which is also gravitational in nature. Suppose that a mass is set into physical oscillation by an external force in some direction, it does not matter which direction is chosen. The movement of the mass will affect the energy of the instantaneous rhysmonic vectors in the direction of this mass translation. If this energy increase is just unidirectional, the mass affected will continue to translate in this direction in the process of inertia as was discussed in Chapter 4. In essence, the component of increased energy is superimposed on the instantaneous rhysmonic vectors contained in this "straight line Euclidian" universe. When the motion is made oscillatory, this requires that the mass be accelerated and then decelerated to a halt, reaccelerated in the opposite direction and again decelerated to a halt again. While external energy is required to initiate this process, once initiated, the energy of the vacuum, i.e., the rhysmonic matrix structure, will maintain this oscillation until dissipated in some fashion. This is because a movement of mass interacts with rhysmonic vectors, and affected rhysmonic vectors, in turn, interact with mass. Thus, an oscillating mass, in principle, should initiate a gravitational disturbance in the vacuum which could be perpetuated forever by the intrinsic energy of the vacuum as was seen in the case of inertia and the propagation of electromagnetic fields.
That this is so is confirmed in the simple test indicated as Experiment II in the simplified sketch of Figure (14). Using the same totally shielded gravitational signal detector as before, slowly oscillate a mass (this cold be your arm, for example) at a slow rate around 1 cycle per second. Note that the audio output of thedetector responds with a "rushing" sound which reflects the disturbance your arm is creating in the 0.25 cm standing waves in the universe. Repeat this motion (adjusting the rate if necessary) until a well-defined "modulation of noise" is established. Then cease this perturbation by your arm at some peak swing and maintain your arm at rest in this position, i.e., do not disturb the vacuum any further. You will now note that the modulations will continue on at this same rate for many more minutes (even hours if there are no other local disturbances), or until other perturbations in the universe destroy this coherent effect. A local effect which usually takes over is the beating of the observer’s own heart!
The basic premises of rhysmonic cosmology have been used to develop a theory of gravitation which correlates very well with known gravitational effect and also discloses some previously unknown gravitational effects. Gravitation is thus seen to be but another aspect of rhysmonic cosmology and rhysmonic impulse forces. In essence, gravitational fields, electric fields, and magnetic fields can be shown to be but specific aspects of the general rhysmonic directed vector flux fields. Rhysmonics provides many more concepts and answers to gravitational enigmas than can be developed in this short monograph. The technological potentials which stem from these concepts are enormous and are being further developed by the author.
Unification of Fields
As was stated in the introduction to this brief monograph, it was the hope of cosmologists to ascertain a basic simplicity to nature and thus to unify the forces of nature, especially the electromagnetic and gravitational fields. This was achieved to some extent in the case of electric and magnetic fields, but the recent emphasis on a geometric explanation for gravitation had just about precluded the inclusion of the gravitational field in this unity. Einstein had spent many years in this quest without success.
To a large measure, rhysmonic cosmology, thus far, has shown that electric and magnetic fields are but different manifestations of directed excess rhysmonic vectors. In the discussion of electromagnetism, it was shown that some dynamic translations of rhysmons would create an electric field due to the creation of regions of rhysmonic excesses and deficiencies. The resulting rhysmonic stress in the vacuum is the electric field. As a function of this rhysmonic movement, rhysmonics required an accompanying rotational movement of directed excess vectors, which manifested itself as the magnetic field. Thus, the two fields, which of necessity must be interrelated in the dynamic case, are but different aspects of directed rhysmonic vectors. This is only natural, as the universe only consists of rhysmons and the void. Similarly, gravitational fields were shown to be but yet another aspect of these vectors as was discussed in the last chapter. The unification of these three aspects is simply demonstrable using the simple circuit for gravitational "wave" signal detection which was shown in Figure (12).
Electric Fields and Gravitation ~
Electric fields have been shown to be a net flux of directed rhysmonic vectors, the result of the presence of charge in the universe. Positive charge is the result of a localized excess of rhysmons, while negative charge is a localized region having a deficiency of rhysmons. Directed excess rhysmonic vectors "proceed" from the excess region to the deficient region, creating a "flux" of rhysmons which has been termed the electric field.
In the discussion on gravitation, it was shown that a similar flux of directed rhysmonic vectors is achievable with the "shielding" action introduced by mass particles, with or without charge. The earth’s mass creates a relatively strong flux known more generally as the earth’s gravity. However, since all these fluxes are excess directed rhysmonic vectors, they are all the same entity, only the method of their creation makes them appear to be different. The equivalence of electric and gravity fields can be shown in the experiments of Figure (15).
Figure (15) depicts the equivalence of electric and gravitational fields through their effects on loosely bound electrons in a capacitor. The electrons are "moved" by gravitational impulses (rhysmons) created by the sharp probe movement in very much the same fashion that the electric field (rhysmons) created by the battery can "move" these electrons. It had been shown by the author (see references of Appendix III) that supernova should create relatively strong monopolar gravitational impulses, i.e., rhysmonic vector impulses, which are oscillatory in nature, and thus should appear to this capacitor as equivalent to an alternating electric field. The resulting perturbations on the loosely bound electrons creates small impulse currents which can be amplified tremendously and converted to voltage fluctuations in the circuit of Figure (12) as described in the last chapter and as further discussed in some references of Appendix III. Therefore, electric fields and gravitational fields, under certain conditions, are indistinguishable from each other (as demonstrated in this test) since they are really the same entities.
Magnetic Fields & Gravitation ~
The simple circuit of Figure (12) may also serve as a gravimeter since the relatively constant rhysmonic flux generated by the earth’s "gravity" develops a small fixed charge in the detecting capacitor which appears as a dc level in the output of the circuit. While the gravitational impulses due to other factors, e.g., supernovae, are also superimposed on the dc level, the dc output can be filtered (or dampened) and thus provide an indication of the strength of the earth’s gravity on a relative basis. The equivalence of gravitational fields and magnetic fields (static) can be demonstrated in the simple tests of Figure (16).
In Figure (16a), a relatively uniform magnetic field, e.g., a small segment of a closed magnetic loop as supplied by two disc-type ceramic magnets "sandwiching" the detecting capacitor, are oriented so that the directed rhysmonic vectors of the magnetic field are in the same direction as the directed rhysmonic vectors of the earth’s gravity field, or g-field. The fields, being the same entities and in the same direction, sum up. Thus the magnetic flux increases the apparent strength of the gravity field, i.e., the earth appears to be more massive. When the magnetic field is reversed, as in Figure (16b), the rhysmonic vectors are in opposition and thus reduced, making the earth now appear to be less massive. The fields are the same entities, and thus a uniform magnetic field (parallel field) is indistinguishable from the gravitational field in this case.
The simple circuit of Figure (12) actually demonstrates the indistinguishability of all three aspects of rhysmonic directed vector flux fields: the electric aspect, the magnetic aspect, and the gravitational aspect. All are directed rhysmonic vector fields, but each is generated by a different process and thus only appear to be a different entity. Electric fields are rhysmonic fluxes generated by vectors moving from excess rhysmonic regions to deficient rhysmonic regions. Magnetic fields are closed loops of rhysmonic flux, but in a short parallel segment of this loop, the flux is indistinguishable from the electric field. Gravitational fields are rhysmonic fluxes generated by the "screening" action of masses. As was indicated in these and other experiments, all three aspects can be made to appear simultaneously, with similar responses, in this one simple circuit, since they are really all the same basic entity.
Since it has been shown that electric fields, magnetic fields, and gravitational fields cannot be distinguished from each other where the involved excess directed rhysmonic vectors are parallel to each other, a unification of these fields is thus achieved.
Applications to Astronomy
The concepts of rhysmonic cosmology have been applied to many aspects of astronomy, from the experimental viewpoint as well as the theoretical viewpoint. Some of these applications have already been considered in this monograph and many more are the subject material for a series of specialized articles (see Appendix III). Only a very few applications will be briefly mentioned here to indicate to the reader the scope of these applications.
Gravitational "Wave" Detection ~
Gravitational "wave" (GW) detection had been briefly considered in this monograph and somewhat more thoroughly in some rhysmonic reference articles. This detection appears in two general forms: active, as in the detection of novae and supernova, as well as some other disturbances in the universe; and passive, as in the "shadow" detection of massive structures in the universe, such as galaxies and black holes.
Detection of monopole gravitational signals provides a new "window" to the universe and should be fruitful in the further development of both astronomy and rhysmonic cosmology. The detection of many gravitational effects has already been verified in a highly repeatable and consistent manner. Since this detection is a low-cost process, requiring very little (non-special) equipment, this field of gravitational "wave" astronomy should have many independent investigators.
Quasars are shown by rhysmonics to be but a special viewing of essentially ordinary type galaxies; perhaps the more distant quasars are of the Seyfert type. As was depicted in Figure (6), the universe is a perfect sphere, with matter formed only in central portion. The outer half-sphere is generally pure rhysmoid (pure vacuum) in construction. A fairly active galaxy could be viewed directly through the matter universe with a great loss of EM wave energy in this matter region, or also over a much longer path reflecting off the edge of the universe, with little or no loss of EM energy in the rhysmoid region. Therefore, this second path would introduce large redshifts but little energy loss, the two more prominent characteristics of quasars. A more detailed description of this process is given in appropriate reference articles.
Superluminal Motions ~
Rysmonics relates this effect largely to quasar images of galaxies in which the viewing angle (off the edge of the universe) for certain luminous or radio emissions (jets) emitted from galaxy centers are such that the virtual image as seen in the spherical mirror of the universe edge makes this image appear to move much faster than in reality. This is a property of spherical mirrors and is simply demonstrable by looking at the image of an object, say a pencil point, viewed from outside the focal plane of a local spherical mirror. Again, this phenomenon is considered more fully in a reference article.
Galaxy Formation ~
As had been pointed out many times now, matter in the rhysmonic universe forms only in the central region of the universe. Coupled with rhysmonic gravitational effects, it can be shown that spiral formation in matter concentrations are a natural development in this universe. With the further development of matter from the intrinsic energy of the vacuum, other effects appear which tend to destroy this symmetry. For example, supernovae tend to form black holes with surrounding shock-ring-formed star systems. On a larger scale, the shock-ring star formations become new galaxy formations. Over a long period of time, the universe may tend to collect black holes in the center region, perhaps creating a super black hole, and a "chicken wire" structure of galaxies in the remainder of the matter portion of the universe. The original basic spiral structure may yet leave trace areas where galaxy count is low, i.e., the so-called holes in space. Gravitational wave astronomy should be able to "map" this structure more completely. More details on these processes are given in the applicable reference articles.
The applications of rhysmonic cosmology to astronomy are much more numerous than can be listed here. Some of these will be further developed in future articles by the author. Much more could be developed when the professional astronomical community becomes involved with this cosmology also.
Applications to Technology
Since rhysmonic cosmology is a fundamental science, dealing with a most basic approach to matter and motion, the application of these concepts to technology is extremely fertile and useful. Therefore, only the briefest of mentions are given here, again to give the reader an idea of the scope of these applications. However, even these few demonstrate the tremendous scope and power of this theory.
Cancellation of l/f Noise ~
It has been shown in several reference articles that l/f noise is generated by massive gravitational effects, such as those created by nova and supernova bursts, the energy of which affect relatively free matter, such as molecules, atoms, and electrons. This noise is heard in such varied phenomena as running water; winds and fan-forced air; ionized flames, such as gas- and oil-fired burners; and even in the so-called "sounds of the sea" in sea shells. Electrons in electronic components such as resistors, capacitors, and electron devices, are especially sensitive to these fluctuations in the rhysmonic flux which bathes matter throughout the universe. Since the sources of these fluctuations are generally large volume, e.g., supernovae, the fluctuations in a particular locality are largely correlated. While other effects, such as signal delays in circuits, would tend to destroy some of this correlation, it is possible, in principle, to cancel noise generated by these processes at the input o an electronic system, where the noise factor is largely established. Cancellation would require the proper adjustment of both phase and amplitude if reduction is to be more complete. Such cancellation would enable the design of more sensitive receivers, for example, since at low audio frequencies, l/f noise, at present, is the limiting factor in receiver sensitivity.
Correction of Weight Scale Errors ~
Gravitational fluctuations of various types affect the gravity field as it appears at the surface of the earth. Balance-type scale systems would not be subject to these fluctuations due to the balanced nature of the scales. However, scale systems which balance weights against some restoring force (Hooke’s Law type scales) would be subject to fluctuation errors which could, at times, be as high as 5-10 percent! Hooke’s Law type scales with electrical readout rather than a mechanical readout, can be corrected for these fluctuations electronically. Further information on this subject is planned for a future reference article.
Vacuum Energy ~
Rhysmonic cosmology has shown the vacuum to be a storehouse of a vast amount of potential energy. In fact, this is the only real energy source in the universe. This energy is made apparent to man through the perturbation and disturbances in this storehouse, which will now appear as particles and fields, as well as other attending phenomena. Most energy sources used by man are secondary sources, in which this fundamental energy had been converted to other forms by other processes. Rhysmonics does not preclude the "tapping" of the vacuum energy more directly, e.g., through an intermediate process which can be controlled by man. Nuclear energy is a point in fact, as in the gravitational impulse energy which can be tapped with the use of capacitors, for example. There are other ways to tap this vacuum energy; these become more and more apparent as the understanding of rhysmonic cosmology develops. The most promising is the extraction of energy from the curl of a magnetic field, which can be directly replaced by the intrinsic energy of the vacuum. Preliminary tests have shown that such a system could probably be the energy source of the future because of its extreme efficiency.
Gravitational Communications ~
Very limited work on this aspect has demonstrated feasibility. This is a most important consideration for, say space communication, since communication would be instantaneous. If there are other intelligent life out there in space, monopole gravitational waves would probably be used for space signaling. Some of the sounds heard on GW detectors, especially the "musical" ones might be such communications, especially as they appear to come from the same direction in space on a daily basis. Most are from the plane of the Milky Way. This development is the direct result of the discovery of monopole gravity signals, and the author is confident that future developments will make this a viable and reliable communications system.
The technological applications applications of rhysmonic cosmology are extremely numerous since this is quite virgin territory yet. The author has prepared many patent applications covering the basic and specific technology of this cosmology. The author, at present, has over 100 potential applications for this technology. However, other than that already disclosed here, the remainder will be disclosed in future articles after patent protection has been sought.
The prime objective of this brief monograph was to introduce the principles of rhysmonic cosmology to potential fellow investigators in a simple and straightforward manner. To do this properly would have required much more time and many more pages than the author could do a this time.
The author, however, hopes that he has provided enough glimpses of this theory to encourage others to enter into this development. Some additional considerations are provided in the specialized articles listed in the rhsymonic references of Appendix III. Technological aspects, however, are first disclosed in patent applications, and then in limited form here and also in technical articles in the future.
Rhysmonic cosmology, which has strong experimental and theoretical support, has every indication of being the viable cosmology of the future. Rhysmonics is here to stay.
(1) R. Buckminster Fuller & R.
Marks: The Dymaxion World of Buckminster Fuller; Doubleday Anchor
(2) Max Planck: The Theory of Heat Radiation; Dover, 1959.
(3) G. Hodowanec: Radio-Electronics (October 1985); "Op-Amp Circuit Detects Gravity Signal".
(4) R. Wilson: Science, Vol. 205 (31 August 1979).
Planck Units (also Rhysmonic Units):
H = Planck’s Constant ~ 6.624 x 10-27 erg-sec.
h = Planck’s Reduced
Constant ~ 1.054 x 10-27 erg-sec.
L* = Planck’s Length ~ 1.616 x 10-33 cm.
T* = Planck’s Time ~ 5.391 x 10-44 sec.
C* = Planck’s Velocity ~ L*/T* = C ~ 2.997 x 1010 cm/sec
M* = Planck’s Mass ~ 2.177 x 10-5 gm.
L*3 = Planck’s Volume ~ 4.22 x 10-99 cm3.
D* = Planck’s Density ~ 5.157 x 1093 gm/cm3
Rhsymon radius ~ 1.62 x 10-66 cm.
Rhsymon volume ~ 1.78 x 10-197 cm3.
Rhsymon number ~ 2.37 x 1098 rhysmons/ cm3.
Derived Rhsymonic Units:
A* = action of rhysmon = h/2pi =
h = E* x T* = E*/ f*
E* = energy of rhysmon = M* x C*2 = F* x L* =
F* = force of rhysmon = M* x a* = E*/ L*
f* = rhsymonic frequency = M* x a* = E*/L*
a* = rhysmonic acceleration = F*/M* = L*/T*2
Visible Universe Parameters:
Ro = radius ~ 1.14 x 1028 cm
Vo = volume ~ 6.2 x 1084 cm3
Mo = mass ~ 3.2 x 10178 gm
No = number of rhysmons ~ 1.47 x 10183
Eo = energy ~ 2.9 x 10199 ergs
Note: Some of the above determinations are only preliminary and these may be changed in the future.
To aid the reader in following the development of rhysmonic cosmology, some terms used in describing this cosmology are defined below. Additional terms will be introduced as needed in the course of the development of this text.
Rhysmon: The fundamental "particle" in the substratum of our universe. In a matrix structure it makes up the very fabric of our universe. It moves in a closed "circular" path and has one quantum unit of action, the Planck constant, h.
Rhysmoid: The sum total of rhysmons in the matrix structure of the perfectly spherical structure which is our universe. Undisturbed, this is a perfectly spherical interlocking mechanical structure which forms our so-called vacuum.
Rhysmos: A general term applying to the rhysmoid in terms of the phenomena observed in this structure. Similar to cosmos.
Rhysmonic: Of or pertaining to rhysmons or to devices, circuits. Or systems developed through rhysmos.
Rhysmonic Cosmology: A study of the origin and structure of the universe based upon the rhysmonic particle matrix system.
Rhsymonic Impulse: A short
directed vector of rhysmonic energy resulting from the matrix structure
of the universe. This vector is approximately 10-33 cm long
h quantum of action. In a pure rhysmoid,
these energy vectors cancel and no phenomena exists. Any modification or
disturbance in this structure results in phenomena known as particles or
Rhysmonic Particles: These are localized structures in the rhysmos where there are excesses or deficiencies of rhysmons in the matrix structure as compared to that of the pure rhysmoid. The geometry of these structures could be very stable, forming the known masses of the universe, or transitory, forming the many short-lived splinter particles of physics.
Rhysmonic Forces or Fields: A perturbated rhysmonic matrix structure results in excess directed rhysmonic impulse vectors which are not cancelled and thus manifests itself as a force or a field of force. The known force fields are but different aspects of these excess directed rhysmonic energy vectors.
Rhysmonic Charge: Same as the electrical field charge. These are the result of excesses or deficiencies of rhysmons in the universe which are not cancelled and thus act as sources or sinks for excess directed vectors. The flow of excess directed vectors from a source to a sink forms the entity known as an electric field.
Rhysmonic Cosmology References
(1) "Background on the Possible Development of a Simple Gravitational Wave Detector"; unpublished note, June 1980.
(2) "Are Cosmological Effects the Source of l/f Noise in Electron Devices?"; unpublished, June 1981.
(3) "Op-Amp Circuit Detects Gravity Signals"; to be published, 1985.
(4) "Is the Universe Really Expanding?"; unpublished, March 1985.
(5) "The Nature of Electromagnetic Wave Propagation"; unpublished, April 1985.\
(6) "The Nature of Gravitation"; unpublished, May 1985.
(7) "The nature of the Microwave Background Radiation"; unpublished, May 1985.
(8) "A Simple Low Cost Radar Signal Detector"; unpublished, June 1985.
Articles in Draft Form:
(1) "Rhysmonic Cosmology: A Brief Introduction"
(2) "The Universe: A Closed & Finite System"
(3) "The Nature of Quasars & Superluminal Motions"
(4) "The Nature of Particles, Fields & Charge"
Articles in Preparation:
(1) "Galaxy Formation"
(2) Supernovae & Black Holes"
(3) "Gravitational Wave Astronomy"
(4) "Gravitational Effects on Hooke’s Law Scales"
(5) "Energy Sources"
Note: Many other theoretical and technical articles are in the planning stages.